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导致直线轴承失效的原因有哪些?

永利总站/ 日期:2020-09-02 发布人:admin

直线轴承根据材料的不同可分为:金属直线轴承与塑料直线轴承,直线轴承是与淬火直线传动轴配合使用。作无限直线运动的系统。负荷滚珠和淬火传动轴因为是点接触,容许载荷较小,但直线运动时,摩擦阻力更小,精度高,运动快捷。但是在使用的过程中,往往会导致直线轴承的失效,这是怎么回事呢?具体原因下面有关详细先容。

Linear bearing can be divided into metal linear bearing and plastic linear bearing according to different materials. Linear bearing is used with quenched linear drive shaft. A system of infinite linear motion. Because of the point contact between the load ball and the quenching drive shaft, the allowable load is small, but when moving in a straight line, the friction resistance is the minimum, the precision is high and the movement is fast. But in the process of use, it often leads to the failure of linear bearing, how is this going on? The specific reasons are described in detail below.
直线轴承失效的主要三大原因:
There are three main reasons for the failure of linear bearing
1、磨损失效
1. Wear failure
磨损失效系指表面之间的相对滑动摩擦导致其工作表面金属不断磨损而产生的失效。IKO直线轴承、持续的磨损将引起直线轴承零件逐渐损坏,并更终导致直线轴承尺寸精度丧失及其它相关问题。磨损可能影响到形状变化,配合间隙增大及工作表面形貌变化,可能影响到润滑剂或使其污染达到一定程度而造成润滑功能完全丧失,因而使直线轴承丧失旋转精度乃至不能正常运转。磨损失效是各类轴承常见的失效模式之一,按磨损形式通常可分为更常见的磨粒磨损和粘着磨损。
Wear failure refers to the failure caused by the continuous wear of the metal on the working surface caused by the relative sliding friction between the surfaces. IKO linear bearing and other linear bearing will be damaged gradually. The wear may affect the shape change, the increase of fit clearance and the change of the working surface morphology, which may affect the lubricant or make it pollute to a certain extent, resulting in the complete loss of the lubrication function, so that the linear bearing loses the rotating accuracy and even can not operate normally. Wear failure is one of the common failure modes of all kinds of bearings, which can be divided into the most common abrasive wear and adhesive wear.
磨粒磨损系指直线轴承工作表面之间挤入外来坚硬粒子或硬质异物或金属表面的磨屑且接触表面相对移动而引起的磨损,常在轴承工作表面造成犁沟状的擦伤。硬质粒子或异物可能来自主机内部或来自主机系统其它相邻零件由润滑介质送进直线轴承内部。直线轴承精度误差的相关常识。粘着磨损系指由于摩擦表面的显微凸起或异物使摩擦面受力不均,在润滑条件严重恶化时,因局部摩擦生热,易造成摩擦面局部变形和摩擦显微焊合现象,严重时表面金属可能局部熔化,接触面上作用力将局部摩擦焊接点从基体上撕裂而增大塑性变形。这种粘着——撕裂——粘着的循环过程构成了粘着磨损,一般而言,轻微的粘着磨损称为擦伤,严重的粘着磨损称为咬合。

Abrasive wear refers to the wear caused by the relative movement of the contact surface between the working surfaces of linear bearing, which is caused by the external hard particles or hard foreign matters or metal surface and the relative movement of the contact surface. Hard particles or foreign matters may come from the main engine or other adjacent parts of the host system, which are sent into the linear bearing by lubricating medium. Linear bearing accuracy error related knowledge. Adhesive wear refers to the uneven stress on the friction surface caused by micro protrusion or foreign matters on the friction surface. When the lubrication conditions are seriously deteriorated, local deformation of the friction surface and friction micro welding phenomenon are easy to occur due to local friction. In severe cases, the surface metal may be partially melted, and the force on the contact surface will tear the local friction welding point from the matrix and increase the plastic deformation. This cycle of adhesion tear adhesion constitutes adhesive wear. Generally speaking, slight adhesive wear is called scuffing, and severe adhesive wear is called bite.
2、接触疲劳失效
2. Contact fatigue failure
接触疲劳失效系指直线轴承工作表面受到交变应力的作用而产生失效。接触疲劳剥落发生在直线轴承工作表面,往往也伴随着疲劳裂纹,首先从接触表面以下交变切应力处产生,然后扩展到表面形成不同的剥落形状,如点状为点蚀或麻点剥落,剥落成小片状的称浅层剥落。由于剥落面的逐渐扩大,而往往向深层扩展,形成深层剥落。深层剥落是接触疲劳失效的疲劳源。
Contact fatigue failure refers to the failure of linear bearing working surface under the action of alternating stress. Contact fatigue spalling occurs on the working surface of linear bearing, which is often accompanied by fatigue cracks. Firstly, it occurs at the maximum alternating shear stress below the contact surface, and then extends to the surface to form different spalling shapes, such as pitting corrosion or pitting spalling, and spalling into small flakes is called shallow spalling. Due to the gradual expansion of the spalling surface, it often extends to the deep layer, forming deep spalling. Deep spalling is the fatigue source of contact fatigue failure.
3、断裂失效
3. Fracture failure
直线轴承断裂失效主要原因是缺陷与过载两大因素。当外加载荷超过材料强度极限而造成零件断裂称为过载断裂。过载原因主要是主机突发故障或安装不当。轴承零件的微裂纹、缩孔、气泡、大块外来杂物、过热组织及局部烧伤等缺陷在冲击过载或剧烈振动时也会在缺陷处引起断裂,称为缺陷断裂。应当指出,直线轴承在制造过程中,对原材料的入厂复验、锻造和热处理质量控制、加工过程控制中可通过仪器正确分析上述缺陷是否存在,今后仍必须加强控制。但一般来说,通常出现的直线轴承断裂失效大多数为过载失效。
The main reason of linear bearing fracture failure is defect and overload. When the external load exceeds the material strength limit, the part fracture is called overload fracture. The main cause of overload is the sudden failure of the host or improper installation. The defects of bearing parts such as microcracks, shrinkage cavities, bubbles, large pieces of foreign debris, overheated tissue and local burns will also cause fracture at the defects when the impact overload or severe vibration occurs, which is called defect fracture. It should be pointed out that the above defects can be correctly analyzed by instruments in the factory re inspection of raw materials, quality control of forging and heat treatment, and control of processing process in the manufacturing process of linear bearings, and the control must be strengthened in the future. But generally speaking, most of the fracture failure of linear bearing is overload failure.
目前,直线轴承被越来越广泛的运用到电子设备、食品机械、包装机械、医疗机械、印刷机械、纺织机械、机械、仪器、机器人、工具机械、数控机床、汽车及数字化三维坐标测量设备等精密设备或特殊机械行业之中。
At present, linear bearing is more and more widely used in electronic equipment, food machinery, packaging machinery, medical machinery, printing machinery, textile machinery, machinery, instruments, robots, tool machinery, CNC machine tools, automobiles and digital three-dimensional coordinate measuring equipment and other precision equipment or special machinery industry.

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