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直线导轨丝杠的性能特点

永利总站/ 日期:2019-04-23 发布人:admin

  直线导轨丝杠的性能特点及应用

  Performance characteristics and application of linear guide screw
  随着现代制造技术的不断发展,使得传统的制造业发生了巨大的变化,数控技术、机电一体化和工业机器人在生产中得到了更加广泛的应用。同时机械传动机构的定位精度、导向精度和进给速度在不断提高,使传统的导向机构发生了重大变化。自 1973年开始商品化以来,滚动直线导轨副以其独有的特性,逐渐取代了传统的滑动直线导轨,在工业生产中得到了广泛的应用。适应了现今机械对于高精度、高速度、节约能源以及缩短产品开发周期的要求,已被广泛应用在各种重型组合加工机床、数控机床、高精度电火花切割机、磨床、工业用机器人乃至一般产业用的机械中。
  With the continuous development of modern manufacturing technology, great changes have taken place in the traditional manufacturing industry. CNC technology, mechatronics and industrial robots have been more widely used in production. At the same time, the positioning accuracy, guiding accuracy and feeding speed of mechanical transmission mechanism are constantly improving, which makes the traditional guiding mechanism have undergone significant changes. Since its commercialization in 1973, the rolling linear guideway pair has gradually replaced the traditional sliding linear guideway with its unique characteristics, and has been widely used in industrial production. It adapts to the requirements of high precision, high speed, energy saving and shortening product development cycle of modern machinery, and has been widely used in various heavy-duty modular machine tools, CNC machine tools, high-precision EDM, grinders, industrial robots and even general industrial machinery.
  滚动直线导轨的性能特点
  Performance Characteristics of Rolling Linear Guideway
  1.定位精度高
  1. High positioning accuracy
  滚动直线导轨的运动借助钢球滚动实现,导轨副摩擦阻力小,动静摩擦阻力差值小,低速时不易产生爬行。重复定位精度高,适合作频繁启动或换向的运动部件。可将机床定位精度设定到超微米级。同时根据需要,适当增加预载荷,确保钢球不发生滑动,实现平稳运动,减小了运动的冲击和振动。
  The motion of rolling linear guideway is realized by rolling steel ball. The friction resistance of guideway pair is small, the difference between dynamic and static friction resistance is small, and it is not easy to crawl at low speed. Repeated positioning accuracy is high, suitable for frequent start or commutation of moving parts. The positioning accuracy of machine tools can be set to ultra-micro meter level. At the same time, according to the need, the preload should be properly increased to ensure that the steel ball does not slip, to achieve smooth movement, and to reduce the impact and vibration of the movement.
  2.磨损小
  2. wear little.
  对于滑动导轨面的流体润滑,由于油膜的浮动,产生的运动精度误差是无法避免的。在绝大多数情况下,流体润滑只限于边界区域,由金属接触而产生的直接摩擦是无法避免的,在这种摩擦中,大量的能量以摩擦损耗被浪费掉了。与之相反,滚动接触由于摩擦耗能小,滚动面的摩擦损耗也相应减少,故能使滚动直线导轨系统长期处于高精度状态。同时,由于使用润滑油也很少,这使得在机床的润滑系统设计及使用维护方面都变的非常容易。
  For the fluid lubrication of sliding guide surface, the motion accuracy error is unavoidable due to the floating oil film. In most cases, fluid lubrication is confined to the boundary area, and direct friction caused by metal contact is unavoidable. In this friction, a large amount of energy is wasted by friction loss. On the contrary, the rolling contact can make the rolling linear guideway system in high precision for a long time because of the small friction energy consumption and the corresponding reduction of the friction loss of the rolling surface. At the same time, due to the use of lubricating oil is also very few, which makes the lubrication system design and use and maintenance of machine tools become very easy.
  3.适应高速运动且大幅降低驱动功率
  3. Adapt to high-speed motion and greatly reduce driving power
  采用滚动直线导轨的机床由于摩擦阻力小,可使所需的动力源及动力传递机构小型化,使驱动扭矩大大减少,使机床所需电力降低80%,节能效果明显。可实现机床的高速运动,提高机床的工作效率20~30%。
  Because of the small friction resistance, the machine tool with rolling linear guide can miniaturize the power source and power transmission mechanism needed, greatly reduce the driving torque, reduce the power required by the machine tool by 80%, and achieve obvious energy-saving effect. It can realize the high-speed movement of the machine tool and improve the working efficiency of the machine tool by 20-30%.
  4.承载能力强
  4. Strong bearing capacity
  滚动直线导轨副具有较好的承载性能,可以承受不同方向的力和力矩载荷,如承受上下左右方向的力,以及颠簸力矩、摇动力矩和摆动力矩。因此,具有很好的载荷适应性。在设计制造中加以适当的预加载荷可以增加阻尼,以提高抗振性,同时可以消除高频振动现象。而滑动导轨在平行接触面方向可承受的侧向负荷较小,易造成机床运行精度不良。
  The rolling linear guide pair has good load-bearing performance, and can withstand forces and moment loads in different directions, such as ups and downs, left and right directions, as well as bumping, rolling and swing moments. Therefore, it has good load adaptability. Appropriate preloading in design and manufacture can increase damping, improve vibration resistance and eliminate high frequency vibration. The sliding guide bears less lateral load in the direction of parallel contact surface, which easily results in poor accuracy of machine tool operation.
  5.组装容易并具互换性
  5. Easy assembly and interchangeability
  传统的滑动导轨必须对导轨面进行刮研,既费事又费时,且一旦机床精度不良,必须再刮研一次。滚动导轨具有互换性,只要更换滑块或导轨或整个滚动导轨副,机床即可重新获得高精度。
  The traditional sliding guide must scrape and grind the surface of the guide, which is time-consuming and time-consuming, and once the accuracy of the machine tool is poor, it must be scraped and grinded again. Rolling guides are interchangeable. As long as the slider or guide rail or the whole rolling guideway pair is replaced, the machine tool can get high precision again.
  如前所述,由于滚珠在导轨与滑块之间的相对运动为滚动,可减少摩擦损失。通常滚动摩擦系数为滑动摩擦系数的2%左右,因此采用滚动导轨的传动机构远优越于传统滑动导轨。
                               直线导轨
  As mentioned earlier, the friction loss can be reduced because the relative motion of the ball between the guide rail and the slider is rolling. Generally, the rolling friction coefficient is about 2% of the sliding friction coefficient, so the driving mechanism using rolling guides is far superior to the traditional sliding guides.
  滚动直线导轨副的选用方法
  Selection Method of Rolling Linear Guide Pair
  滚动直线导轨副具有承载能力大、接触刚性高、可靠性高等特点,主要在机床的床身、工作台导轨和立柱上、下升降导轨上使用。大家在选用时可以根据负荷大小,受载荷方向、冲击和振动大小等情况来选择。
  The rolling linear guide pair has the characteristics of large bearing capacity, high contact rigidity and high reliability. It is mainly used on machine tool bed, worktable guide rail, upright and downward guide rail on column. We can choose according to the load size, load direction, impact and vibration magnitude.
  1.受力方向
  1. Force direction
  由于滚动直线导轨副的滑块与导轨上通常有4列圆弧滚道,因此能承受4个方向的负荷和翻转力矩。导轨承受能力随滚道中心距增大而加大。
  Because there are usually four rows of arc raceways on the slider and guide rail of rolling linear guide pair, it can withstand load and overturning moment in four directions. The bearing capacity of the guide rails increases with the increase of the center distance of the raceway.
  2.负荷大小
  2. Load size
  滚动直线导轨不同规格有着不同的承载能力,可根据承受负荷大小选择。为使每副滚动直线导轨均有比较理想的使用寿命,可根据所选厂家提供的近似公式计算额定寿命和额定小时寿命,以便给定合理的维修和更换周期。还要考虑滑块承受载荷后,每个滑块滚动阻力的影响,进行滚动阻力的计算,以便确定合理的驱动力。
  Different specifications of rolling linear guide have different bearing capacity, which can be selected according to the size of bearing load. In order to make each pair of rolling linear guides have ideal service life, the rated service life and the rated hourly service life can be calculated according to the approximate formula provided by the selected manufacturer, so as to give a reasonable maintenance and replacement cycle. Considering the influence of rolling resistance of each slider after bearing load, the rolling resistance is calculated to determine the reasonable driving force.
  3.预加负载的选择
  3. Selection of preload
  根据设计结构的冲击、振动情况以及精度要求,选择合适的预压值。
  According to the impact, vibration and accuracy requirements of the designed structure, the appropriate preloading value is selected.

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